Originality Guidelines

It is UMT's editorial policy to welcome submissions for consideration which are original and not under consideration for any other publication at the same time. All authors should be aware of the importance of presenting content that is based on their own research and expressed in their own words. Plagiarism is considered to be bad practice and unethical. As per the part of UMT Copyrights Policy, originality guidelines are designed to assist authors in understanding the acceptable and unacceptable practices. Our approach is specifically aimed at promoting and protecting authors' work.

The following types of plagiarism should be avoided:

Verbatim copying - Verbatim copying of more than 10% or 15% (or a significant passage or section of text) of another person's work without acknowledgment, references or the use of quotation marks.

Paraphrasing - Improper paraphrasing of other person's work is where more than one sentence within a paragraph or section of text has been changed or sentences have been rearranged without appropriate attribution. Significant improper paraphrasing (more than 10% of work) without appropriate attribution is treated as seriously as verbatim copying.

Re-using parts of a work without attribution - Re-use of elements of other person's work, for example, a figure, a table or a paragraph without acknowledgment, references or the use of quotation marks. It is incumbent on the author to obtain the necessary permission to reuse elements of another person's work from the copyright holder.

Self-plagiarism - UMT requires that all authors sign a copyright form that clearly states that their submitted work has not been published previously. If elements of a work have been previously published in another publication, including any UMT publication, the author is required to acknowledge the earlier work and indicate how the subsequent work differs and builds upon the research and conclusions contained in the previous work. Verbatim copying of the author's own work and paraphrasing is not acceptable and we recommend that research should only be reused to support new conclusions.

We recommend that authors cite all previous stages of publication and presentation of their ideas that have culminated in the final work, including conference papers, workshop presentations and listserv communications. This will ensure that a complete record of all communication relating to the work is documented.

Republication of original work – Only original and innovative work is published in UMT Journals with a small number of exceptions only. These exceptions include conference papers, archival papers that are republished in special issues and at the discretion of the Editor. The original work is fully and correctly attributed and permission from the appropriate copyright holder obtained.

Attribution - References to other publications must be in APA 6 style for SBE Journals. All references should be carefully checked for completeness, accuracy, and consistency. You should include all author names and initials and give any journal titles in full.

Handling allegations of plagiarism - UMT seeks to uphold academic integrity and to protect authors' rights and to ensure this, we take all cases of plagiarism very seriously. UMT is also aware of the potential impact of an allegation of plagiarism that can ruin a researcher's career. Therefore, we have procedures in place to deal with alleged cases of plagiarism. In order to take an unbiased approach, we investigate each case thoroughly, seeking clarification from all affected parties.

UMT is an academic publisher and uses software such as Turnitin to get help when an alleged case of plagiarism is brought to our attention. If we are approached by a third party with an allegation of plagiarism, we would always seek a response from the author(s)/contributors or copyright holder(s) before we decide on a course of action. We will not be influenced by other parties and will form our decisions in an unbiased and objective manner.

UMT is not obliged to discuss individual cases of alleged plagiarism with third parties. UMT reserves the right not to proceed further with a case if the complainant presents a false name or affiliation or acts in an inappropriate or threatening manner towards UMT editors and staff.

Prior Publication

If the material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a UMT journal. However, for abstracts and posters presented at conferences, the authors should inform the Editor and acknowledge the first source of publication.

Articles that have been presented at a conference but not published by the conference organizers may also be considered. The author should confirm that they have not granted the conference organizers a license to the work; if the author retains all the rights in the work, the journal editor may consider the article for publication based on the fact that articles presented at a conference are unlikely to be the same or substantially the same version as that being accepted by the journal. 

In all cases, the author should disclose any prior publication or distribution to the Editor and ensure appropriate attribution to the prior distribution and/or publication of the material.