Journal of Management and Research <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Management and Research (JMR) is the flagship pragmatic journal in management, aims to present the latest thinking and research on all major and minor management areas in indispensable way for readers. The Journal welcomes a broad view of business and management while encouraging new ideas and advanced perspectives on existing research and promising deep-exploration approach for the future possible research areas.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Thus, work submitted to Journal&nbsp;of Management and Research&nbsp;implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors; neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> (Editorial Office) (Khadija Naz) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of HRM System strength and High performance work practices on Service Performance: Considering Mediating Mechanism <p>The purpose of this paper is on how ability enhancing, motivation focused and opportunity creating high performance work practices and employee’s perception of HRM system strength relate to performance outcome i.e. branch service performance in a Bank’s settings. Furthermore, this paper explores the mediation effect of Line mangers ability, motivation and opportunity to implement human resource practices between the high performance work practices, perception of HRM system strength and service performance. Adopted a quantitative research design. Data collected from a sample of 761 employees across 380 different bank branches in Pakistan. Structural equational modeling technique was used to analyze the data. The result supported both content and process perspectives and the positive impact of ability, motivation and opportunity HR practices and HRM system strength on branch service performance. However, the mediation results indicated the partial acceptance. This study provides an empirical evidence of how high performance work practices and employee’s perception of HRM system strength influence branch performance of bank’s employees in developing nation context. The findings of this paper are expected to encourage researchers to be more thoughtful to the connection between organisational HRM system support and HR practices to improve performance within organisations by emphasizing the alignment between Line manager’s AMO and HPWP practices.</p> Adeel Javed, Osman sadiq Paracha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 06:39:56 +0000 Entrepreneurial Finance: Exploring the Drivers and Challenges Faced by Young Pakistani Entrepreneurs <p>Within the last decade, the popularity of entrepreneurship rose exponentially all over the world; however, research in this field within the context of developing countries is still lacking. Generally speaking, accessibility and availability of financial support is one of the most significant factors affecting an entrepreneur’s venture when it is in its initial stages. This is especially true in the case of developing countries such as Pakistan. For this reason, this study explored the drivers and challenges faced by Pakistani entrepreneurs regarding the access to and availability of financial support. Data was collected through 65 semi-structured interviews of budding Pakistani entrepreneurs until the saturation point was reached. Afterwards, the interviews were transcribed and imported to NVivo 12 plus, which was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the interviews. The major findings of the research revealed that entrepreneurs face many challenges with regards to the access and availability of financial support in Pakistan. Additionally, according to the respondents, the entrepreneurial journey in Pakistan is laden with challenges and has minimum drivers (opportunities available to the entrepreneurs). The respondents also expressed a lack of awareness and downright distrust of the government-sponsored financial support schemes.&nbsp;</p> Urooj Qamar, Nighat G Ansari, Shamaila Gull, Fatima Tanveer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antecedents and Outcomes of Intimate Co-creation: A Qualitative Inquiry <p>This qualitative research study aims at re-conceptualizing intimate co-creation on the basis of a qualitative data analysis. Hence, along with a latest conceptualization, theory of intimation co-creation has been empirically examined in this study. Based on the qualitative research approach of interpretive phenomenological analysis, qualitative data obtained from eight in-depth interviews was transcribed and coded in QDA Miner Lite software for analysis. Results found that five emerging themes represent the phenomenon of intimate co-creation. Furthermore, the contribution of this study was that a new research framework on intimate co-creation has been developed in which antecedents and potential outcomes of intimate co-creation have been identified. Propositions have been given as well to elaborate the relationship of antecedents and outcomes of intimate co-creation for future research direction.</p> Muhammad Umar Shahzad, Amir Ishaque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Employee Perception Shaped by Despotic Leadership on the Job Performance of Employees: Investigating the Mediating Role of Work Engagement and the Moderating Role of Social Climate of Friendship Groups <p>The effect of employee perception of despotic leadership on employee job performance is an active area of research. The current study used the conservation of resource (COR) theory to investigate the mediating impact of employee work engagement and the moderating role of social climate of friendship groups. For this purpose, a proportionate sampling technique was used. Data was collected from 423 employees of pharmaceutical companies listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) by utilizing a dyad approach with predictors (self-reports) and employees’ performance (supervisor-reports). The hypotheses were tested through Hayes Process (<a href="#Hayes_2012">2012</a>) and regression analysis. The study results showed that employee perception of despotic leadership is inversely associated with employee job performance and work engagement. Furthermore, this study identified that the impact of this association decreases under the conditions created by the social climate of strong friendship groups. This research explores this broad area and adds to the body of knowledge on dark leadership. The findings of the study have significance for both theory and organizational practice.</p> Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Mumtaz Muhammad Khan, Akhtar Mehmood, Usman Ali, Muhammad Navid Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mediating Role of Moral Identity in the Relationship between Ethical Leadership and Unethical Behavior of Employees: Evidence from the Oil and Gas Sector of Pakistan <p>This study draws on social identity, social learning, and trait-activation theories to probe if moral identity mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and unethical behavior. It investigates how ethical leadership serves as a predictor of employees’ unethical behavior and moral identity as a mediator between ethical leadership and employees’ unethical behavior. Together, these variables influence the self-reported unethical behavior of employees. The findings of this study are based on a sample of 297 oil and gas sector employees in Pakistan. For this purpose, data was analyzed through SPSS and AMOS. Consistent with trait-activation and social learning theories, employees on seeing their leaders behaving ethically develop a positive sense of the moral identity and report fewer incidences of unethical behavior. Furthermore, the findings suggested thatmoral identity and ethical leadership behavior are vital for predicting organizational outcomes. Thus, the originality of this study lies in the fact that it analyzed the influence of moral identity as a mediating variable.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Muhammad Kamran Khan, Shakira Nazeer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Transformational Leadership: Mediating Role of Green HRM and Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics <p>The current study investigated the impact of green transformational leadership on employee commitment towards the environment, keeping in view the mediating effect of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices and the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics. For this purpose, data collected through a survey questionnaire from 524 hotel employees working in Lahore was analyzed. The analysis was carried out through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. It highlighted a significant impact of green transformational leadership on employee commitment towards the environment, while GHRM practices were found to partially mediate this relationship. Furthermore, it was also identified that the Islamic <br>work ethics moderate the relationship between GHRM practices and employees’ commitment towards the environment. This study adds value to the literature by considering the mediation mechanism of GHRM practices and the moderating role of Islamic work ethics in the relationship between green transformational leadership and employees’ commitment towards the environment.</p> Muhammad Salman, Ishfaq Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Public Service Motivation and Quality of Working Life in Public institutions: Analyzing the Moderating Role of P-O Fit <p>Public service motivation (PSM) is an important concept in the field of public management. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between the quality of work-life (QWL) and PSM of public sector employees. It also investigated how the person-organization fit (P-O fit) influences this relationship. To test our conceptual model, data was collected from 253 faculty members of public universities through a self-administered survey questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated a significant positive relationship between QWL and PSM. The findings also demonstrated that P-O fit strengthens the positive association between QWL and PSM.</p> Sobia Hassan, Muhammad Fiaz, Rabia Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental Risk, Corporate Strategy, Financing Strategy and Firm Profitability: Evidence from South East Asian Countries <p><em>The aim of the paper is to analyze the simultaneous influence of environmental risk, corporate strategy and financing strategy on firm profitability. Data for the period of 2013-2019 was collected from COMPUSTAT and respective Stock exchanges. The sample consists of a total of 4837 publicly traded firms from South East Asian Countries. Using fixed effects model, the findings of the study revealed that independent constructs explain significant variation in firm profitability. These findings are helpful for managers in formulating better strategies particularly those that are concerned with addressing the volatility and uncertainty dimension of the environment as well as resource development for supporting their decisions related to strategy formulation.</em></p> Zia ur Rehman, Asad Khan, Abdul Ghafoor Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SMEs, Economic Growth, and Business Incubation Conundrum in South Africa. A Literature Appraisal <p>Despite the South African government&amp;#39;s desire to encourage economic growth via SME growth, attempts to ameliorate the difficulties encountered by SMEs are often hindered by a lack of resources, one of which is business incubation. This paper employs a descriptive literature review to declutter the varying concerns of SME growth and development from the narratives around the role of business incubators (BIs) and the government. This, we believe, would provide clarity on the challenges faced by SMEs development in South Africa by filtering the roles of both BIs and the government. Descriptive literature review as a qualitative technique helps to reveal an interpretable pattern in the current literature and was thus employed in this study. Even while the literature points to the importance of SMEs in economic growth, their volatility makes them an unreliable partner for the South African government currently. This is because the literature suggests that the government is failing them in one way or the other through limited and failed support systems. Because of their excessive reliance on government funding, BIs cannot help SMEs as they should because of the lack of funding. Consequently, one might argue that the &amp; quot; law of unintended consequences,&amp;quot; or the unexpected repercussions of government policies and actions/inactions, hinder South Africa&amp;#39;s government from achieving its objectives. We flag some implications and future research directions in our closing arguments.</p> Vuyani Rens, Chux Gervase Iwu, Robertson Khan Tengeh, Emmanuel Ekale Esambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Moderated Mediation Model of Empowering Leadership and Employees’ Innovative Work Behavior <p>This study examined the moderated mediation model of empowering leadership and employees’ innovative work behavior (IWB) by analyzing the mediating role of employees’ psychological empowerment and high-performance work system (HPWS). Using the convenience sampling technique, time-lagged data was collected from 433 software engineers working in different software companies operating in Pakistan. Hierarchical regression analysis and PROCESS macro were used to perform the analysis. The findings revealed that empowering leadership impacts employees’ IWB directly as well as through their psychological empowerment, while HPWS moderates the relationship between empowering leadership and employees’ psychological empowerment. The findings further articulated that the moderated mediation effects of HPWS also arbitrate between empowering leadership and employees’ IWB. The results of this study implied that when employees work in the context of a high HPWS, they reciprocate positively to the support and resources received from their leaders. Similarly, in the context of a high HPWS, empowering leadership greatly enhances employees’ psychological empowerment and creativity. In the context of a low HPWS, employees’ IWB depends upon their leaders’ behavior and also on their own psychological empowerment. Hence, the study analyzed&nbsp;<em>when</em>&nbsp;(contextual boundary conditions) and&nbsp;<em>how</em>&nbsp;(the underlying mechanism) empowering leadership enhances employees’ IWB by utilizing the moderated mediation model.</p> Amir Riaz, Muhammad Shahid, Qamar Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000