Journal of Management and Research <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Management and Research (JMR) is the flagship pragmatic journal in management, aims to present the latest thinking and research on all major and minor management areas in indispensable way for readers. The Journal welcomes a broad view of business and management while encouraging new ideas and advanced perspectives on existing research and promising deep-exploration approach for the future possible research areas.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Thus, work submitted to Journal&nbsp;of Management and Research&nbsp;implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors; neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> (Editorial Office JMR) (Khadija Naz) Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Book review: Effective Management Control; Theory and practice by Flamholtz & Eric G. <p><span lang="EN-GB">Effective Management Control</span>&nbsp;sheds light on relatively misunderstood and neglected aspect of organizational effectiveness. It critically analyzes the process of controlling people’s behaviour in any organization. The issue of the design of an optimal control system and organizational control is considered to be significant for an organization’s long-term effectiveness.</p> Muhammad Ashar Asdullah, Hassan Yazdifar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jun 2020 12:38:40 +0000 The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification between Leadership and Job Security: A case of Teachers in Private institutions of Punjab-Pakistan <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>In the business environment today job security is an important and primary requirement of the employees as the employees’ turnover rate is haphazardly increasing in different industrial sectors. This study determines the impact of leadership and organizational identification on the job security of teachers in the private institutions Punjab, Pakistan and the mediation of organizational identification is also tested. Data is analyzed by using Smart partial least squares structural equation modeling (Smart-PLS-SEM). Many teachers suffer from low job security that not only affect them internally but also affect their work performance. Therefore the main objective of our research is to determine the responsible factors which affect the job security of teachers working in the private educational institutions operationalized under BISE Punjab. In this paper, the parameters used for determining the job security of teachers are; Leadership, and organizational identification and mediating role of organizational identification between leadership and job security is also tested. During this study, 150 teachers from different private institutions operational in Punjab were asked to&nbsp;</em><em>fill up the questionnaires containing a total of 32 items including different numbers of questions related to each determinant. The results showed that the determinants can explain the job security of the teachers up to a significant level. However, regression analysis and validity analysis proves that they are good predictors of job security of the employees (teachers). Beside these conclusions, this paper introduced other scientific queries and issues regarding the different types of relations or connections among the determinants and hence gives probable pathways to explain or interpret the relations. </em></p> Haider Ali, Fawad Hussain, Anyl Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jun 2020 12:11:01 +0000 Transformational Leadership and Corporate Reputation: Mediation Effects of Employer Branding <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of transformational leadership and corporate reputation on employer branding by testing a hypothesized model. This study employed a quantitative online survey technique. The researcher distributed 350 questionnaires through purposive sampling out of which 132 questionnaires received back for data analysis. Regression analysis was selected to analyze the collected data to test the hypothesis developed from past literature. Results validate that transformational leadership has an impact on employer branding and employer branding has a direct impact on corporate reputation but correlation amid transformational leadership and business reputation goes insignificant when added employer branding showing full mediation of this variable. The present study backs the writings of business reputation that can be developed through transformational leadership and employer branding. The findings would be helpful for organizational leaders in developing strategies to create a corporate reputation</em>.</p> Muhammad Zeesahn, Tariq Waheed Qureshi, Shahid Bashir, Usman Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jun 2020 07:55:24 +0000 What leads to Employee Engagement in Pharmaceutical Sector of Pakistan? <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Managers and HR professionals are always concerned with the engagement of employees at the workplace. This study aims to explore the connection between employee engagement with job fit, psychological climate, leadership style, and affective commitment. A sample of 284 employees out of 365 participants was chosen from two pharmaceutical companies based in Karachi. SPSS was used to analyze the data and different statistical tools were applied. The results of the study showed that the independent variables i.e. job fit, psychological climate, leadership style, and affective commitment have a significant and positive influence on employee engagement. All the hypotheses were failed to reject. This study can help HR professionals in designing a strategy for retention and engagement. The results which are presented in this study can help organizations to identify the potential reasons for engagement which leads to high productivity and profitability. </em></p> Shiraz Ahmed, Junaid Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jun 2020 07:29:25 +0000 Mediating Role of Environmental Management Accounting and Control System between Top Management Commitment and Environmental Performance: A Legitimacy Theory <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The purpose of current study is to assess the impact of top management commitment on firms’ performance, based on legitimacy theory with mediating role of environmental management accounting and environmental management control system. Survey-based data has been collected through questionnaires from ISO 14001 based manufacturing firms of Pakistan. Path analysis has been conducted by applying structural equation modelling on total 304 respondents' data to answer the study hypotheses by using SPSS and AMOS. Results of the study indicate that there is a positive and direct impact of top management commitment on the firms' environmental performance. Moreover, environmental management accounting and control system significantly mediate the relationship between top management commitment and environmental performance. The theoretical model of this study is first time developed and tested by the researcher in Pakistan. Practically, the findings of this research give a deep insight and understanding of how the managers in Pakistan can improve the environmental performance of their firms, through commitment&nbsp;and environmental management accounting as well as environmental management control system tools.</em></p> Muhammad Amir, Syed Abdur Rehman, Muhammad Irfan Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 13:57:07 +0000 Perceived Effectiveness of Tenure Track System and Basic Pay Scale among Academic Staff of Higher Education Institutions <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The Tenure Track system was introduced in Pakistan in 2002 to improve higher education in the country by recruiting qualified faculty members in higher education institutions, particularly in public sector universities. The main advantage of this system is to grow talented researchers within the faculty to obtain optimal benefits. Much i known about the system, but more is needed to explore. Another system is the Basic Pay Scale. It is a structure that regulates how much an employee is rewarded as salary or wages, depending on the rank, status, position, or tenure in an organization and the effort made to perform a specific task. The objective of this study is to explore the perception and effectiveness of the systems. An explanatory approach is used to address the research questions. Semi-structured interviews were utilized as a source of data collection. The 14 interviews were conducted from faculty members of higher education institutions of public sector universities. The data is converted into transcripts and main themes emerged with the help of the coding technique. The findings reveal the effectiveness of the two system, its process, system preference, and sources of stress. The results show the aspects where the two systems differentiate each other, their&nbsp;recognition, potential sources of stress, and the perception about the available information. The findings also depict that for a better implementation of the system (TTS) and to achieve its basic objective, it is necessary that the system must aware of its full capacity.</em></p> Sobia Sultana, Shaista Jabeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:40:27 +0000 Preferential Treatment Impacts Organizational Commitment: Evidence from Public Universities of Pakistan <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Preferential treatment is detrimental. Keeping in view this important perspective, this study intends to capture the impact of preferential treatment via favoritism, nepotism, and cronyism on employee commitment in Public Universities of Pakistan. To seek the objectives of the study 400 questionnaires were distributed to employees of different Public Universities. The findings of the study revealed the negative impact of favoritism, nepotism, and cronyism on employees’ commitment. The results of the study confirmed the moderating role of LMX in the relation between favoritism-organizational commitment as well between nepotism-organizational commitment relation whereas, contrary to expectations LMX did not moderate the relation between cronyism and organizational commitment. Practical implications, limitations as well future directions are discussed</em></p> Filza Hameed, Muhammad Mudassar Anwar, Zafar Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 11:53:19 +0000 Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Access to Finance and Strategic Flexibility on SMEs Performance <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The sports goods manufacturing sector of Pakistan is comprised of 10,400 small and medium enterprises and annually contributes 6% to the country’s GDP. Despite its prominent role in promoting economic growth research on the sports goods manufacturing sector of Pakistan remains limited. This research analyzed the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, access to finance, and strategic flexibility on SMEs performance in the sports goods manufacturing sector of Sialkot, Pakistan. 400 SMEs were randomly selected out of 10,400 sports manufacturing SMEs in Sialkot, Pakistan. A pen and paper survey method was utilized to collect data from SMEs managers. Out of 400 SMEs contacted 372 agreed to participate in research. 372 usable questionnaires were received back. The results show that entrepreneurial orientation and access to finance have a significant positive effect on SMEs performance. Whereas, strategic flexibility was found to be insignificant in affecting SMEs performance.</em></p> Wasif Sajjad, Amber Sajjad, Muhammad Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 10:35:55 +0000 The Rise of Spiritual Tourism in South Asia as Business Internationalization <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Globalization and digitization are motivating organizations around the world to manage and internationalize their products and services. Adaptively, most Asian companies are internationalizing their businesses with respect to various industries; one obvious example is the tourism industry. The global tourism industry can be segmented into niche types such as heritage tourism, dark tourism, medical tourism, including spiritual tourism. The objective of this paper is to analyze the rise of spiritual tourism in South Asian countries and discusses its operations that are internationalized rather than being region-centric or locally focused. It is argued that that public and private tourism operators in South Asia have realized that spiritual tourism presents an attractive product to invest and market based on people, places, and events. However, the challenge is to internationalize multi-faith spiritual tourism in the context of people, places, and events that would be the only way to develop and sustain this niche segment of the tourism business. It is argued that there are various factors that could enable South Asian countries to effectively internationalize their spiritual tourism destinations. The paper concludes that business internationalization of South Asian spiritual tourism, will not only achieve economic development objectives, but also social and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and bi-lateral diplomatic goals for regional peace and prosperity</em></p> Farooq Muhammad Haq, Anita Medhekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Employees Demography and Team-Playing Behaviour of Bank Workers in Ijebu Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>This descriptive survey research investigated the influence of employee demography on bank workers’ team-playing behaviour. The population of this study is the entire bank workers in Ijebu Ode Southwest, Nigeria. Participants were selected randomly while an instrument titled “Team-playing Behaviour Questionnaire (TPBQ)” was used for data collection. TPBQ is designed on a five-point rating scale divided into 3 parts. The first part contains participants’ demographic data, the second part seeks information about employees’ team-playing behaviour. The last part contains items to elicit factors that bring about non-assistive team-playing behaviour at work. TPBQ was examined by experts in Sociology and Measurements for validity. Cronbach alpha method (resulting in 0.79 reliability co-efficient) was used to test the instrument for reliability. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Mean and Standard Deviation, and ANOVA.Findings revealed that employee demography (age, sex, years of experience, and job status) have a significant but varied influence on team-playing behaviour of banker workers. There are other non-demographic variables like team’s lack of focus, membership laziness, lack of voice in team deliberations, and lack of interest or required&nbsp;skill for the job or task given, all have high tendencies to bring about non-supportive team-playing behaviour among staff. Recommendations are raised upon these findings.</em></p> OLUDEYI Olukunle Saheed, OSUNNUGA Adedayo Ireti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000