Journal of Management and Research <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Management and Research (JMR) is the flagship pragmatic journal in management, aims to present the latest thinking and research on all major and minor management areas in indispensable way for readers. The Journal welcomes a broad view of business and management while encouraging new ideas and advanced perspectives on existing research and promising deep-exploration approach for the future possible research areas.</p> University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Management and Research 2218-2705 <p style="text-align: justify;">Thus, work submitted to Journal&nbsp;of Management and Research&nbsp;implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors; neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Characterizing Circular Supply Chain Practices in Industry 5.0 With Respect to Sustainable Manufacturing Operations <p>The current research investigated the significance of circular supply chain practices in Industry 5.0 with respect to their sustainable manufacturing operations. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, the current study identified key circular supply chain practices and their potential benefits for Industry 5.0. The findings indicated that closed-loop supply chains, sustainable sourcing, product design for circularity, and waste reduction may assist Industry 5.0 firms to achieve their sustainability objectives while enhancing the operational efficiency. Moreover, the study also highlighted the challenges associated with the implementation of circular supply chain practices including the necessity for collaboration among supply chain partners, investment in new technologies and infrastructure, and the development of new skills and capabilities. From a practical and managerial perspective, the implications suggest that firms aiming to adopt circular supply chain practices in Industry 5.0 should prioritize collaboration and coordination, make investments in new technologies and infrastructure, and foster the acquisition of new skills and capabilities. To complement this research, future studies could employ empirical research methods in order to validate the findings and recommendations as well as explore potential barriers to the implementation of circular supply chain practices in Industry 5.0.</p> Abdul Sami Umair Manzoor Asmara Irfan Farhan Sarwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-27 2023-06-27 10 1 84 105 10.29145/jmr.101.04 Role of Customer Participation in Technology Innovation in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): A Qualitative Study on Value Co-Creation and Co-Destruction <p>Bringing innovation to organizations is not only considered to be a growth strategy but also a way to survive in the current technological era. Technological innovation involves customer participation and engagement<br>for value co-creation and co-destruction, which raises new challenges in theory and practice. It becomes more challenging in the service industry, specifically the education sector. Limited literature is available regarding<br>different roles played by the participating customers during technology innovation. Therefore, an empirical study was needed to explore the role(s) of customer participation in the entire process of co-creation, the drivers for customers’ positive engagement, and the reasons behind the negative engagement of customers while participating in technology innovation process. The negative engagement of the customers not only hinders the success of the co-creation process, rather it also causes co-destruction from multiple aspects. The current study followed the qualitative method to explore the phenomenon of value co-creation and co-destruction. In order to perform this task, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the representatives of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) firms and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of Pakistan. The collected qualitative data was sorted in Nvivo 13 and thematic analysis was<br>performed. The study concluded with the identification of multiple roles/dimensions of customer participation to foster or hinder the cocreation process. The major beneficiaries of the study include ICT firms and HEIs which need to re-assess their business processes. The study also contributes to the evolving theory of value co creation, while engaging the actors (customers).<br><br></p> Muhammad Yasir Amjad Tashfeen Mahmood Azhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-27 2023-06-27 10 1 1 25 10.29145/jmr.101.01 Impact of Workplace Violence on Sustainable Performance of Nurses with the Mediation of Social Well-being in the Pakistani Context <p>The current study investigated the impact of the predictors of workplace violence (harassment, physical violence, stalking, and ostracism) on sustainable work performance with mediating the role of social well-being of Pakistani nurses considering the ‘hierarchy of need’ theory. A survey method was used to conduct the current study. The data was collected from 400 respondents of four nursing teaching colleges, affiliated with hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. The data was analyzed in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) software using structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique. The results revealed a negative influence of workplace violence on the performance of nurses. Moreover, it tends to dissatisfy their safety and social needs, the most important human needs according to Maslow’s theory. Since Maslow’s time, researchers continued to explore how safety and social needs impact the well-being of nurses. Social well-being is related to better physical, mental, and social health and conversely, feeling isolated (unmet safety and social need) bears negative consequences for health and well-being. Eventually, it became the reason for low performance. The findings confirmed that workplace violence is the strong predictor of sustainable performance. Whereas, nurse’s social well-being mediates the relationship between the predictors (workplace violence) and the outcome variable (performance). Therefore, the study concluded that when safety and social needs are fulfilled, nurses perform their duties enthusiastically. This is the first endeavor to use the “hierarchy of need” theory in order to mediate the effect of violence, performance, and social well-being of nurses. Therefore, the current study served as a baseline for further research in this area. The findings helped the higher authorities and hospitals’ management to devise such policies which help nurses towards organizational growth and sustainable work environment.</p> Sakina Bashir Shahaan Mehmood Cheema Murtaza Ashiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-27 2023-06-27 10 1 26 57 10.29145/jmr.101.02 Examining the Relationship between Relational e-HRM and Organizational Performance: A Study of the Banks of Lahore during the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The current study empirically investigated the implementation of relational e-HRM practices in banks and examined their relationship with the overall organizational performance of the banks in Lahore during COVID-19 pandemic. It also highlighted the issues that managers face during the implementation of relational e-HRM practices. The mixed method approach was adopted to conduct this cross-sectional study. Commercial banks with their head offices in Lahore were chosen and 171 branches were selected randomly. The purposive sampling technique was used to collect qualitative data and semi-structured interviews of sixteen (16) branch managers were carried out online. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically while covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) was used to understand the effect of e-HRM practices on organizational performance. Most of the banks were found to have implemented all the relational e-HRM practices except e-selection which was implemented only in two branches. Relational e-HRM practices showed a positive effect on the overall performance of banks during COVID-19 pandemic. Centralized decision- making, limited autonomy of bank branches, presence of senior, computer illiterate employees, and inadequate financial resources were found to obstruct the implementation of e-HRM practices. The current research added to the e-HRM literature and examined the association between relational e-HRM practices and overall organizational performance in the context of banks operating in Lahore which apparently was never done before. Only the top commercial banks operating in Lahore, one of the largest metropolitans in Pakistan, were included in this study. The generalizability of findings may be enhanced with further studies.</p> Muhammad Zeeshan Hanif Ahmad Usman Ayesha Hanif Rabia Sabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-27 2023-06-27 10 1 106 135 10.29145/jmr.101.05 Measuring Human Capital Development (HCD) Return on Investment (ROI), Risk, and Knowledge Gaps across selected Occupations in South Africa <p>of Human Capital Development (HCD) as compared to their overall business performance and profitability. The HCD measurement challenge may be attributed to the knowledge gap on HCD measurement among employees and managers. A quantitative survey (n = 210) measured and compared management and employee knowledge on HCD Return on Investment (ROI), HCD risks, and HCD risk solutions in South Africa. Respondents ranged across occupational categories from various organizations. The findings indicated an awareness of HCD ROI measurement, risk, and risk remedies. However, there were deviations in that knowledge across occupational categories. General managers and entrepreneurs have better knowledge of HCD ROI measurement, risk identification, and risk remedies as compared to other occupations. HR, financial, hospitality, and learning and development professionals showed the lowest mean scores. The current study contributed to measure HCD ROI, risk, and occupational HCD knowledge gaps. The practical implication and contribution of the study was that managers and employees were made aware of the significance of measuring HCD ROI, risk, and remedies across all occupations. Moreover, further research is recommended to expand the research instrument and measure HCD knowledge across occupations in other countries in Africa and across the globe.</p> Cookie M. Govender Waliu Mulero Adegbite ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-27 2023-06-27 10 1 58 83 10.29145/jmr.101.03 Impact of Supply Chain Integration on Supply Chain Performance: Moderating Role of Supply Chain Flexibility. <p>Modern world is more uncertain than ever before. Organizations need to identify the capabilities needed to gain competitive advantage under these uncertain conditions. Supply chain integration is such a capability that may help a firm achieve competitive advantage under uncertain market conditions. The current study evaluated the multidimensional role of supply chain integration in supply chain performance. The moderating role of supply chain flexibility between different dimensions of supply chain integration and supply chain performance was also considered. Based on the data gathered from Pakistani manufacturing firms, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized model. The results showed that internal integration and supplier integration represented a positive impact on supply chain performance. However, the moderating role of supply chain flexibility was determined to be significant only in the case of customer integration – supply chain performance relationship. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Zia Ul Haq Haris Aslam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 10 1 10.29145/jmr.92.05 Strategic Communication: A Tool to Engage Multiple Stakeholders for Corporate Sustainability <p>This paper aims to understand the role of strategic communication to engage diverse stakeholders by companies for developing strategies for corporate sustainability. Currently, companies are moving towards sustainable development for environmental protection, social well-being, and economic growth. Usually, the government and policymakers in a country play an important role in the sustainability of any economy. However, they cannot achieve this goal alone and require businesses to identify and emphasize the issues of sustainability. This paper embarks on this issue by identifying that businesses can engage diverse stakeholders and actively communicate with them to identify, discuss, prioritize, plan, and execute sustainability-related goals. Strategic communication plays an important role in communicating with stakeholders for a meaningful purpose, which is a prerequisite for policy development. The policies developed by companies have a long-term impact on the sustainability of the company as well as on the entire economy. This paper aims to understand the current communication policies of companies for developing sustainability targets. Furthermore, this paper suggests a way forward for better development and positioning of the company’s sustainable strategies through communication.&nbsp;</p> Meryem Altaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 1 10.29145/jmr.92.04 Diagnostic Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Operations for Business Model Reconfiguration Decision <p>The current study develops a diagnostics assessment model of post-COVID-19 operations for business model reconfiguration decision referred to as the Pakade model. For this purpose, it identified seven diagnostic factors namely business operations disruptions, loss of human resources, changing cost structure due to safety requirements, work structure and culture change, disruption of supply chain and logistics, changing customer requirement and behaviour, and consequences of interventions on sustainability. The assessment was conducted using a 29-item scale scored on a 7-point scale representing the level of impact on the respective firm’s business model. The proposed model assesses the composite score and relative importance index for each business factor, highlights the approach for investigating the validity and reliability of this multidimensional model, and makes short- and long-term impact evaluation with multiple linear regression and difference-in-difference (DiD) method, respectively. Diagnostics assessment determines the form and extent of business model reconfiguration. It can either be an adjustment driven by the introduction or enhancement of world class work practices, a business re-engineering, or a complete change of the business model. This model can be applied to both the primary and secondary economic sectors to determine the changes required in the business model of a firm.</p> Matolwandile M Mtotywa Victor LV Mtotywa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 1 10.29145/jmr.92.03 Conducting a Bibliometric Study through a Systematic Literature Review regarding Job Characteristics and Work Engagement <p>In businesses, top management typically discusses increasing employee performance by focusing on job characteristics (JC) and work engagement (WE). Typically, employees' job characteristics are classified based on the Job Demand Resource Theory (JDR) or the Job Characteristics Theory (JCT). In fact, work engagement is concerned with an employee's enthusiasm and dedication to their job. This systematic literature review intends to examine research articles on job characteristics and work engagement (WE) from 2017 to 2021 that were retrieved from publicly available databases. Furthermore, this study critically reviews the most significant theories and employs Bibliometric analysis and Microsoft Excel to develop research themes. In addition, Bibliometric study included selected literature trends, the most influential words, the most dominant authors, co-occurrence networks, thematic maps, and factorial analyses. PRISMA was utilised for systematic screening. A conceptual model and prospective study directions have been presented to intellectuals and aspiring academics. Hence, this review is a noteworthy addition to the current body of literature. This analysis recommends that businesses and policymakers should explore regulations and tactics to optimise the job characteristics of the workforce. Moreover, managers should recognize that WE enlighten performance and increase the organization's revenue and commitment. Applying these JC and WE concepts would provide firms with a competitive edge that would enable them to sustain and flourish worldwide.</p> Maryam Gull Alia Ahmed Imran Asghar Warraich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 1 10.29145/jmr.92.02 Knowledge Management Dimensions and Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA) of Deposit Money Banks: Mediating Role of Innovation <p>The primary objective of the current research was to explore how the Knowledge Management (KM) processes of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Makurdi Metropolis contribute to their Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). Additionally, this study determined to evaluate how innovation helps the banks to retain their competitive advantage. A total of 265 valid samples were collected from a population of 14 DMBs and 933 respondents were selected from these DMBs. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). While testing the assumptions, hypotheses 1-3 supported the proposition that KM dimensions; acquisition (β=.32, p &lt;.05), utilization (β=.26, p &lt;.05), and storage (β=.24, p &lt;.05) were directly related to &nbsp;SCA. No evidence was found for the full mediating role of innovation in relation to KM dimensions and SCA, as demonstrated by the data. However, innovation does play a role in certain aspects of KM by demonstrating that acquisition (β=.69, p &lt;.05), utilisation (β=.21, p &lt;.05), and storage (β=.18, p &lt;.05) are positively associated with innovation in DMBs. The findings indicated that managers who responded to KM were more innovative. The importance of DMBs lies in the recognition that knowledge is not a simple concept. A commitment to new discoveries and to new understandings is not sufficient. Enterprises need to pursue knowledge that enables them to add value.</p> Joseph Teryima Sev Faajir Avanenge Egena Ode Emakwu John Sylvia Sewuese Sev Paul Aidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 1 10.29145/jmr.92.06