Journal of Management and Research 2021-03-05T17:35:37+00:00 Editorial Office JMR Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Management and Research (JMR) is the flagship pragmatic journal in management, aims to present the latest thinking and research on all major and minor management areas in indispensable way for readers. The Journal welcomes a broad view of business and management while encouraging new ideas and advanced perspectives on existing research and promising deep-exploration approach for the future possible research areas.</p> How Much Does the Recruitment Channel Really Matter: Recruiters’ and Applicants’ Behaviors in the South Asian Context 2021-03-05T17:35:14+00:00 Qamar Ali Muhammad Fayyaz Sheikh Bilal Latif <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>In this paper, we discern recruiters’ and applicants’ tendencies towards recruitment channels. By drawing on the contextual perspective of human resource management (HRM), we argue that the national institutional environment of a country greatly influences recruiters’ choices of recruitment channels and applicants’ level of attractiveness towards jobs. Using an experimental study (n = 200 graduate students) and in-depth interviews of 10 human resource managers, we find that a) although recruitment channels positively affect applicants’ perceptions of organizational attractiveness, they have no significant impact on applicants’ intentions to apply for the job and b) even though online recruitment channels are widely believed to have a greater impact on organizational attractiveness, recruiters in the south Asian context continue to prefer the paper-based recruitment channels. The study provides interesting insights for recruitment literature, by explicating that socio-cultural and economic context enormously shapes recruiters’ and applicants’ preferences of recruitment channels.</em></p> 2021-02-22T12:06:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of a Dynamic Model of Quality Control Circles: A Case of ABC Packaging Company 2021-03-05T17:35:16+00:00 Ijaz Yusuf Tahsfeen Mehmood Azhar <p style="text-align: justify;">Quality control circles are considered an effective tool in the organization to best utilize the potential of the workforce. The objective behind using quality control circles is to use employees’ brains to generate savings and create an impact on the bottom-line of the company. The framework of the quality control circles shown in Table 2 proposed the structured seven steps strategy to use the workforce's potential for continuous improvement in the organization. Companies confront multi-faceted issues and challenges in the operational processes and corporate excellence thus mainly depends upon the effective and efficient quality controls to overcome the product, process, machine, and material related issues that hamper the production efficiency, quality of the product, and overall productivity of the company. This paper attempts to develop the system dynamics model of quality control circles based on normalized data of the case company. Participation in quality control circles is voluntary in nature and passion to learn and improve is the intrinsic motivation for employees and organizations to join these circles. Employee involvement to participate and produce creative ideas in these circles is the key to the success of these quality-enhancing programs (Jerman et al. 2019) and model outcome depicts the same story. The quality control circle model indicates that a set of inter-related and interdependent skills and behaviors are a necessary condition to increase participation in the quality&nbsp;control circles and productivity of projects under consideration. The computer-based software STELLA is used for programming the model of quality control circles using the generic structures of the company under study. Underlying feedback structures and interactions among various variables makes the model closer to the real-life setting.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Ethical Leadership on Task Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics 2021-03-05T17:35:25+00:00 Muhammad Qasim Tahir Hussain Rizvi Muhammad Irshad <p>The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of ethical leadership on task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), with the boundary condition of Islamic work ethics (IWE). Data were collected from 200 employees working in the public and private sector organizations in Islamabad, Pakistan. The data were analyzed through SPSS. The collected data revealed that ethical leadership has a positive and significant influence on task performance and OCB. Furthermore, IWE was also found a significant moderator by enhancing the relationship of ethical leadership and both the outcome variables. It concluded that ethical leadership sets the tone for the employees for improving their task performance and OCB. Additionally, Islamic work ethics can also enhance the positive outcomes of ethical leadership.&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectiveness of Public Private Partnerships: A Systematic Literature Review 2021-03-05T17:35:27+00:00 Zulfiqar Ali Sidra Irfan Yaamina Salman <p style="text-align: justify;">Questions about the ‘effectiveness’ of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been raised for quite some time now. Although implementation and performance problems are given some attention while carrying out systematic literature review regarding PPPs, there is no systematic literature review available to the best of our knowledge that analyses/reviews the ways in which the effectiveness of PPPs is measured. This review of 107 articles intends to fill this gap by reviewing the peer-reviewed articles/papers published during the years 2000-2016. It particularly investigated three areas including (a) the ways in which the effectiveness of PPPs is defined, (b) methods used by the researchers to measure the effectiveness of PPPs, and (c) theories/perspectives explaining the effectiveness of PPPs. The results indicated that the effectiveness of PPPs is not clearly defined in the existing literature. Moreover, there is no consensus on what counts as an effective PPP. Regarding the methods of measurement, the overwhelming majority of researchers focused only on the identification of factors as opposed to the actual measurement of effectiveness. With respect to theoretical perspectives, governance theories were used in most cases. Based on the findings of this systematic literature review, it is recommended in the current research to use six broad categories of methods/factors identified as a starting point to measure the effectiveness of PPPs.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Does Executive MBA Deliver? Exploration of Developmental Outcomes and Participants’ Perceptions of Delivery Effectiveness 2021-03-05T17:35:23+00:00 Naveda Kitchlew <p>Critics of the value of the Executive MBA program have not adequately considered the perceptions of Executive MBA students. This paper evaluates performance of an Executive MBA program by exploring students’ preferred developmental outcomes and perceptions about the effectiveness of their Executive MBA program towards delivering the targeted outcomes. Interviews, focus groups and survey were conducted with program’s directors, staff, and current and graduated students in a large privately run university in Punjab province of Pakistan. As a result of a rigorous process, the study identified twenty-seven critical outcomes under two categories namely “personal outcomes” and “professional outcomes” which students consider important and urge their Executive MBA program to deliver. On the whole students appear to be satisfied with their Executive MBA program; however, the effectiveness of their program is below their expectations. Identification of the exact outcomes in this study provide directions for Executive MBA administrators to make their curriculum and pedagogical/andragogical techniques more relevant and value-oriented for their students. Based on these findings, it is inferred that Executive MBA programs’ planning should consider students as the protagonist of their programs’ planning process.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Once Again! What Makes up Work Vitality? Refining the Construct and its Characteristics through a Qualitative Analysis 2021-03-05T17:35:20+00:00 Nida Usman Jahangir Sania Zahra Malik <p>The concept of vitality, particularly work vitality, has been extensively explored in the existing literature, yet a comprehensive conceptualization and definition of this concept is not available. Based on the conservation of resource theory and the concept of salutogenesis, this exploratory study defined and studied the nature of the construct ‘work vitality’ as a psychological resource. Using a qualitative design, a comprehensive conceptual model of work vitality was developed. Thirty-three semi-structured interactive interviews were conducted. Based on social constructionism, thematic analysis was undertaken using the NVIVO software. The findings revealed that work vitality is a relatively constant, trait-like positive and energetic mindset characterized by the perceptions of aliveness, well-being and functioning at work. Five elements of work vitality, that is, perceptiveness, constancy, accessibility, restorability, and transferability were identified through qualitative empirical evidence. Hence, the current study contributes to the existing literature by explicating the nature of work vitality and identifying its elements. Finally, implications and future directions are discussed.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Examining Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediated Model 2021-03-05T17:35:18+00:00 Adnan Riaz Saira Mahmood Javeria Shabbir <p>Despite various attempts to know the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB), the findings are inconsistent and offer a varying degree of associations. The present study examines the underlying mechanism by hypothesizing impression management (IM) as a mediator to address the element of equivocality in the subject matter. Furthermore, it tests the moderating role of self-esteem (SE) on the impression management to counterproductive work behavior relationship. A representative sample of 398 employees was collected from different organizations of Pakistan. The results confirmed the intervening role of impression management between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior. Furthermore, the employees high on self-esteem showed lesser tendencies to involve in counterproductive work behavior. Theoretical and practical implications have also been discussed.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan: Challenges and Prospects 2021-03-05T17:35:30+00:00 Urooj Qamar Nighat Ansari Fatima Tanveer Nida Qamar <p style="text-align: justify;">Social Entrepreneurship (SE) benefits the society by helping to achieve social and economic goals. SE is receiving scholarly attention around the globe but its development is still moderate in Pakistan. Despite the growing trend, the dominant focus of scholars remains the ideological debate about the meaning and definition of SE. Such an approach inhibits the exploration of its other facets. Casting the gap in literature, this paper aims to find out the challenges and prospects that social entrepreneurs face in their journey, specifically in Pakistan. Keeping in view the emerging importance of this sector, this study discusses the findings of 14 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with leading social entrepreneurs, practitioners and academicians related to the field to understand the phenomenon at hand. Drawing upon the findings of the study, useful insights have been put forth as its theoretical contribution. Moreover, local and national government can benefit from the findings to enhance consciousness regarding the fourth sector of the economy, eventually augmenting the available social capital.</p> 2020-12-30T12:07:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Organizational Virtuousness on Workplace Spirituality with the Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support 2021-03-05T17:35:37+00:00 Rabia Naseem Quratulain Akhtar Mamoona Akram <p>This paper aims to analyze the relationship between organizational virtuousness and workplace spirituality with the mediating role of perceived organizational support. Data was collected from 250 employees working in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan through a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Hayes’ PROCESS macro (a statistical technique). The study reported a statistically significant relationship between organizational virtuousness and workplace spirituality and also proved perceived organizational support as a partial mediator between these two variables. The findings make an important contribution to the literature available on positive psychology / organizational behavior, especially positive organizational scholarship (POS). The findings also suggest the organizations to adopt practices and procedures that help to create a climate of virtuousness.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Do Employees Snooze or Strike Back to Injustice? 2021-03-05T17:35:35+00:00 Sadaf Choudhary <p>This study aims to investigate the relationship between the perceptions of injustice and revengeful intentions among first- person (revengeful intention by the victim), second-person (revengeful intention for the sake of a close friend), and third- person (revengeful intention for the sake of an acquaintance). A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 154 respondents. The findings showed that interactional injustice is associated positively with first-person revenge, whereas distributive and procedural injustice lead to second-person and third-person revengeful intentions. This study offers important insights about the broader impact of injustice which goes beyond the victim and explains how it ignites negative feelings among the non-victim as well.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##