Journal of Finance and Accounting Research <div class="row" style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Finance and Accounting Research (JFAR) is a multidisciplinary international journal of the Department of Banking and Finance, Dr Hasan Murad School of Management (HSM), University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan. JFAR is committed to publishing high-quality studies in finance and related fields and is widely circulated, both nationally and internationally.&nbsp;Accounting, Finance &amp; Auditing are seen as essential components for the successful implementation of market-based development policies supporting economic liberalization in the rapidly emerging economies. JFAR publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field of&nbsp; Accounting, and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject.</div> Department of Banking and Finance, Dr Hasan Murad School of Management (HSM), University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Finance and Accounting Research 2617-2232 <p style="text-align: justify;">JFAR follows an open-access publishing policy and full text of all articles is available free, immediately upon acceptance. Articles are published and distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0</a> International License.&nbsp;Thus, work submitted to UMT Journals implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors; neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;On acceptance of a manuscript for publication, a corresponding author on the behalf of all co-authors of the manuscript will sign and submit a completed&nbsp;<a href="">Author Consent, Copyright, and Declaration Form.</a></p> Time-frequency Volatility Spillovers of Conventional Stock Markets: Evidence from Developed, Emerging, and Frontier Markets <p>This study examines the volatility spillovers and financial connectedness of conventional equity stock markets in developed, emerging, and frontier economies in GCC, SAARC, BRIC, and G7. Diebold and Yilmaz (DY-12) and Baruník and Krehlík (BK-18) spillover methods are used to analyze the daily data for the period 2012-2021. The findings indicate that the coronavirus pandemic significantly affected return and volatilities in conventional stock markets, surpassing any previous economic instability event, such as the 2014-2015 crude oil crisis. The findings also reveal that conventional stock markets are weakly interconnected in terms of overall return, with the US stock market being the top transmitter of returns and volatility. These findings have significant policy implications for investors, regulators, and policymakers.</p> Moghis Ur Rehman Zamrud Khursheed Muhammad Kashif Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 5 1 10.32350/jfar.51.01 Conventional or Shariah Compliant Investment: Performance Evaluation of Mutual Funds in Pakistan <p>The current study was initiated to compare the performance of conventional and <em>Shariah-</em>compliant mutual funds in Pakistan, keeping in view the contradictory opinions found in the literature in this regard. The data utilized to conduct the analysis covered the time span 2013-2021. Assessment of risk and return tradeoff &nbsp;was made with three ratios, namely Jenson’s alpha, Treynor ratio, and Sharpe ratio by evaluating the monthly returns of conventional and <em>Shariah-</em>compliant mutual funds. The findings revealed that <em>Shariah-</em>compliant mutual funds outperformed conventional funds in terms of absolute risk measure, higher Sharpe ratio, and low coefficient of variation. While, in terms of funds’ exposure to systematic risk, mixed results were obtained for both types of funds. The results produced sufficient information about the risks and returns associated with the two kinds of mutual funds which would enable fund managers and investors to make informed decisions while selecting the best mutual fund, thus generating maximum returns and with minimum risks.</p> Unbreen Arif Muhammad Irfan Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 5 1 10.32350/jfar.51.02 Trends in Earning Management (EM) Practices: A Cross Country and Industrial Analysis <p>This paper analyzes the trends in earnings management (EM) practices of 500 non-financial firms across 8 major industries operating in both developing and developed economies for the period 2008-2017. It significantly contributes to the literature by identifying the country-specific, industry-specific, and over the time trends in accrual and real earnings management practices prevailing in the non-financial sector of both developed and developing economies of the world. EM trends are analyzed across countries, across industries, and over the sample period. The sample consists of 500 non-financial firms from 8 different industries of 22 developed and developing economies for the period 2007-2018. Accrual and real earnings management are alternatively used in the non-financial sector across the world. This study uses the Modified Jones Model (Dechow et al., <a href="#Dechowetal1996">1996</a>) and the Roychowdhury model (<a href="#Roychowdhury">2006</a>) to estimate accrual and real earnings management. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to examine the mean differences between countries and industries as well as over the time differences. The country-wise analysis concludes that Pakistan is on the top of the list in managing earnings followed by Canada, particularly in accrual-based earnings management. It may be attributed to poor accounting standards and regulatory frameworks. The industry-wise analysis shows that the mining industry, characterized by high dependency on capital markets and the uncertainty associated with the prospects of mineral reserves, is highly involved in EM. Finally, the year-wise analysis determines that the year 2009 was highly escorted with accrual and real earnings management practices, which may be the result of the global financial crisis of 2007-2008. The findings imply that the policymakers of developing economies should strongly emphasize improving the general macroeconomic environment of the economy by controlling inflation, improving law and order conditions, and ensuring political stability. Additionally, the findings have potential implications for corporate managers while formulating strategies to restrict them from EM that may diminish both firm value and the economy.</p> Kaneez Fatima Aisha Javaid Musarrat Karamat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-24 2023-06-24 5 1 10.32350/jfar.51.03 Impact of Credit Risk Management on Bank Performance: An Empirical Study on Commercial Banks Listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) <p>Commercial banks are involved in uncontrolled credit risk management that negatively affects their sustainable banking performance. Many guidelines, strategies, and judgments have been made, such as the Basel Accords, to control these issues and adequately manage their lending and borrowing policies. This study aims to analyse the impact of credit risk management on the sustainable performance of commercial banks. For this purpose, secondary panel data was collected from the annual financial reports of 27 commercial banks out of the 31 listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for the period 2017-2021. E-views 10 software was applied to perform descriptive correlation and multiple regression analyses. In the current study’s model, credit risk management proxies, return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), and net interest margin (NIM) were employed as dependent variables. At the same time, capital adequacy ratio (CAR), loan and advances (LA), non-performing loans (NPL) ratio, market profit opportunity (MPO), and bank liquidity (BL) were employed as independent variables. The study concludes that bank liquidity has a significant positive relationship with bank performance. Comparably, capital adequacy ratio, non-performing loans, bank liquidity, market profit opportunity, and loan and advances harm the sustainable performance of commercial banks. The research suggests that implementing stricter policies and strategies, such as the regulation of customer loans, is required to control these issues.</p> Shahid Mahmood Muhammad Adnan Ali Ahsan Riaz Nimra Riaz Marium Azad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 5 1 10.32350/jfar.51.04 Influence of Coopetition on Firm Financial Performance: Mediating Role of Open Innovation Performance <p class="Default" style="margin-top: 12.0pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">It is essential for a firm to take advantage of the rising phenomenon of coopetition across multiple firms and marketplaces in today's highly competitive climate to enhance its financial performance. Hence, this study contributes to the existing body of literature by probing the link between coopetition and the success of open innovation initiatives in Pakistani SMEs. The failure of Pakistani SMEs to establish a controlled method of coopetition has had a deleterious effect on financial performance. The current research is conducted to identify the low open innovation problem in Pakistani small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which has a negative effect on financial performance. It aims to investigate the impact of coopetition on financial performance and the mediating function of the firm’s open innovation performance in it. To achieve this objective, a survey employing a cross-sectional research design was conducted. The respondents were selected from SMEs operating in the service sector in the cities of Bahawalpur, Multan, and Lodhran in Pakistan. A total of 155 questionnaires were distributed among managerial employees of the above SMEs. The data collected from the responses to the questionnaires was analyzed through Partial Least Square-Structure Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). It was found that coopetition has a strong role in boosting financial performance. The importance of trust and dependence in crafting an effective coopetition strategy is also emphasized in this research.</p> Iqra Hamid Abdul Nafay Sajid Zahra Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 5 1 10.32350/jfar.51.05