Journal of Management and Research http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Management and Research (JMR) is the flagship pragmatic journal in management, aims to present the latest thinking and research on all major and minor management areas in indispensable way for readers. The Journal welcomes a broad view of business and management while encouraging new ideas and advanced perspectives on existing research and promising deep-exploration approach for the future possible research areas.</p> University of Management and Technology en-US Journal of Management and Research 2218-2705 <p style="text-align: justify;">Thus, work submitted to Journal&nbsp;of Management and Research&nbsp;implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors; neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Knowledge Sharing and Affective Commitment:Mediating Role of Trust Between Knowledge Sender and Receiver http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/260 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The main determination of the current study is to explore the antecedents of knowledge sharing. Hence; affective commitment is an antecedent that shows how knowledge can be shared among the knowledge participants by using an employee’s emotional attachment and recognition with the organization. Similarly, the mediating role of trust was checked between employee’s knowledge sharing attitude and affective commitment. Data was collected from the hi-tech information technology (IT) industry from Pakistan with a sample of 143 as valid responses. Regression, correlation, factor loading, and path coefficients were used to check the reliability, validity, and model fit of the research framework. The findings suggested that employees’ recognition and emotional attachment with the organization are positively related to knowledge sharing. In addition, the mediating role of trust between affective commitment and knowledge sharing is significant and positive. </em></p> Contributing Authors Maqsood Ahmad Iram Mushtaq Rana Muhammad Umar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 6 2 1 18 Investigating the Impact of Workplace Diversity on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Inclusion http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/257 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>This research is aimed to investigate the effects of workplace diversity on organizational citizenship behavior with the mediating role of inclusion. Today the problems faced by the organization’s executives are to develop a culture that gives value to differences and enhances the efficiency of the entire workforce. Employees of the IT sector of Lahore are selected as respondents and the data is collected through an adapted questionnaire. The sample size is 368 and convenience sampling is used. Regression analysis is applied to evaluate the data through SPSS software. Findings show that workforce diversity decreases organizational citizenship behavior but this relationship can be modified by applying the mediating role of inclusion. Results will help out the decision-making authorities to understand how effective workplace diversity management influences the employee’s citizenship behaviors.</em></p> Contributing Authors Kanza Tariq Khan Shaista Jabeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 6 2 19 50 Generation X and Y: Impact of Work Attitudes and Work Values on Employee Performance http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/258 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Sustainable competitive advantage lies in the intellectual capital of firms, where it has become important to retain employees and train them for future leadership. Hence, firms must recognize the importance of the work values and attitudes of the employed Generation.</em><em> U</em><em>nderstanding Generational diversity and using the right strategy is crucial for the firm’s success. Theorization of Generational differences have been applied in Western Cultures more often than Eastern Cultures, hence this research expanded the concept of Generational diversity to the banking workforce of Karachi, Pakistan. The relationship between Generation X and Y work values and attitudes on employee performance was examined. Three hundred people from Generation X and Y were taken as a sample from the Commercial Banks in Karachi and responses on different work attitudes and values were taken. It was found that values and attitudes have a significant relationship with employee performance for both Generation X and Y. However, cognitive and social values are important for Generation X while cognitive, instrumental and prestige values are important for Generation Y employees. The study theoretically contributes to work values and attitudes perspective, generational theory and performance perspective and offers implications for creating a suitable combination of tasks and rewards with respect to individual needs. </em></p> Contributing Authors Sania Usmani Muhammad Haris Asif Muhammad Zaid Mahmood Muhammad Yousuf Khan Mir Burhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 6 2 51 84 Building World-Class University in Pakistan: Opportunities and Constraints http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/259 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The article explores the issues of academic excellence in higher education to pursue a position in world-class universities. Two universities in Pakistan have been chosen for the site of this qualitative study, one which has achieved the status, and the other still aspiring. The triangulation has been reached by a document analysis of the quality reports submitted by the two universities, semi-structured interviews with the senior and middle management of the universities, deans, and director for Quality Enhancement Cells, and head of the departments of the selected universities. The primary data obtained have been compared and contrasted with the quality characteristics marked by standards for academic excellence. Research findings inform us that unawareness of the international quality standards, and its potential benefits, the disinterest of university leadership are the main problems, due to which Pakistani universities are lagging behind. The study proposes if proper understanding and meaningfulness is created through quality professionalism, it would become much easier to pursue quality&nbsp;assurance process to meet international standards. The findings of the study will be a unique contribution to the body of literature creating a point of interest to policymakers and quality assurance practitioners of the developing countries who are concerned about the academic excellence of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to accentuate in the significant areas which make any university, a world-class university.</em></p> Contributing Authors Ayesha Khawar Seema Arif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 6 2 86 113 Transformational Leadership and Pro-Environmental Behavior of Employees: Mediating Role of Intrinsic Motivation http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/262 <p style="text-align: justify;">Current research study attempts to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on pro-environmental behaviors along with the mediation of intrinsic motivation. This model is tested on 150 professionals that include lecturers from four different universities of Pakistan. We find that transformational leader enhances the intrinsic motivation, which consecutively related to pro-environmental behaviors positively. Further, there is also a direct positive relationship of transformational leadership with pro-environmental behaviors. Precisely, our findings advocate that transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation is important in prompting pro-environmental behaviors of employees.</p> Contributing Authors Maria Saleem Faisal Mahmood Fatima Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-26 2019-12-26 6 2 114 136 Bank Profitability in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study of a Nationalized Commercial Bank with That of a Private Commercial Bank http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/291 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The main aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the performance of public and private banks in Bangladesh. Performance measured in terms of bank’s profitability always remains the focal point of all the banking activities. Data collected from publically and privately owned and managed banks in Bangladesh revealed that profitability of both banks was not satisfactory though private sector bank was more profitable than public sector bank during the period of this study.</em></p> Contributing Author Mohammad Ahsan Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 6 2 137 166 An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Organizational Performance in Hospitality Sector in Pakistan http://ojs.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jmr/article/view/264 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Human capital is professed as a critical factor and a special resource that can elevate the firm’s performance, generally, in most of the organizations, and specifically, in labor-intensive organizations. It is considered a special resource in the hotel industry where employees have direct interaction with customers. Although a lot of research has been done, however, the question of how much and what type of human capital is required by the organization to fight in the recent rivalry is still unanswered. This study is an effort to answer the aforesaid question about human capital in the hospitality sector in Pakistan (involving five stars, four-star, and three-star hotels separately). A theoretical framework and a research conceptual model is developed on the bases of in-depth literature. A cross-sectional field survey was conducted through an adopted and valid research instrument. Questionnaires were administered to 300 respondents selected by stratified random sampling, 275 were received and 250 were perfect for further use in SPSS version 22. Statistical analysis shows the results which clearly identify the strong and significant relationship between human capital and organizational performance. Moreover, microanalysis of components of human capital depicts that innovation and creation have the most significant impact among all of the three components, on organizational performance in all types of hotels in Pakistan. Theoretically, the current study added knowledge to the literature about the constructs of human capital, organizational performance, and&nbsp;</em><em>organization success. Practically, in the hotel industry, it contributes to strategic decision making such as employees’ training, human capital investment, regulatory decisions, developing mechanisms in order to develop human capital as a unique and valuable resource that leads to the competitive advantage of the organizations. The current study is limited to five stars, four-star and three-star hotels in Lahore, Pakistan. It an important and initial step towards establishing a measurable and empirical value of human capital for organizations in the hospitality sector. However, It opens new vistas for researchers to further investigate the phenomenon.</em></p> Contributing Authors Saira Munir Asia Bibi Ahmed Faisal Siddiqui Qurrat Ul-Ain Butt ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-26 2019-12-26 6 2 167 208